1. suitable for the natural environment of the Mongolia Plateau
The Mongols used sheep stomach to describe their yurts, the thirteenth Century Mongolia packet shape so. Mongolia bag on top of the circle and the tip of the middle large, rounded, the characteristics as “quasi circle” in this form, the prairie storm and snow, after a packet buffer by Mongolia, will be a proper distance behind it, the gentle slope forming a crescent and accumulated. This is because the Mongolia package is not water chestnut, smooth and round, streamlined shape. The top of the bag is arched, bear the strongest (such as the arch bridge) to form a very strong overall. The wind is coming up and can bear a huge reaction force. The sand on it flows away, and the sand below is piled up behind. Build a sturdy Mongolia bag that will withstand the ten winds of spring and winter.
Mongolia can withstand package on the grassland are because of the morphological structure of heave rain, Mongolia package. During the rainy season, the wooden shelves of Mongolia bags must be relatively steep, and then the top felt will be covered. The rain and snow will be difficult to invade. The top of the bag is round, and the rainwater can only flow away from the top felt. However, in rainy days, the pressure on Mongolia bags will definitely increase, and it will be common for Mongolia packs to bear two thousand – three thousand jin of pressure. The Mongolia pack can bear so much pressure, because the Mongolian people know the mechanics very well, and the manufacture of wooden frames is very scientific, and they share the pressure.
This place in Inner Mongolia since ancient times and the bitterly cold however the Mongols generations lived in Mongolia, have not heard of a freeze. Because of one, there is fire in the bag, the dung of the cattle and sheep is the best fuel. Second, the winter outside the yurts need thick, inside need to tie a layer of felt, wind insulation good performance. Third, also in the package inside the ondol mattress, add epithelial skin was what will be cold?
Mongolia bag is warm in winter and cool in summer. Because it is a sphere, the whole body white, there is a very good reflection. You can also open the back window, but also the surrounding edge felt to lift up.
2. adapt to nomadic life
Mongolian is a nomadic people, engaged in nomadic production, the Mongolia package came into being and brought great convenience to the long-distance migration of tens of thousands of miles.
As a traditional handicraft of the Mongolian nationality, Mongolia package has obvious Mongolian characteristics. Many of the basic structures of the Mongolia package are translated from the Mongolia dialect. May be difficult to understand, we will strive for a user-friendly way to introduce the basic structure of the Mongolia package.
Mongolia package is in accordance with Kazakhstan how much to distinguish between specifications?. Well, that’s essentially a wooden skeleton of a felt wall, a set of ha. And there were ten, the eight, and the four, and the six, and the other. According to the number of family and household population living conditions to adjust the use of. Even if the quality and decoration of Mongolia package are different, but the overall structure of the Mongolia package is the same.
The outer necessities of Mongolia include red felt top, felt top handle, buckle rope, felt top, string, rope, felt wall, belt, door, curtain and so on.
The red felt top, its Mongolian name is called “the forehead like each and the”, square, four angles, facing north and south, East and West, four directions. The center of the room and the center of the roof frame are opposite the center of the red felt top. With a thick wool rope side, the top surface is used for coarse wool rope rolling head pattern, modified sewing. The red carpet top is used to adjust the indoor air temperature, the night / morning opened. Red felt top four sides are rough Kousheng, north, West, East pressing sleeve lace outside the skylight. It has the tape on the gland and pulls it off. Red felt top handle, three feet long, made of fine wood, in the south of the red felt top coarse wool Kousheng, is used to fix the.
The use of Kazakhstan and rafters to fasten the rope buckle.
Cloud pattern tied with the roof of the blanket for decoration.
The skylight frame roof mat cover with a blanket or reed sewn together, so as to adapt to the change of seasons and climate. The top is felt with green cloth, decorative pattern wide edge rolling head. A reed sewing called reed. Winter snow, summer rain.
The belt is a coarse wool flat rope with a felt wall and is tensioned with two rows of felt walls.
The basic structure of the Mongolia package is basically the above. Although the types of Mongolia bags are different, the basic structure of the Mongolia package is the same. Mongolia package as a national cultural heritage, although now nomadic reduced, but the Mongolia package culture must continue to carry on.
Mongolia Bao as the main building of the Mongols, often on the Inner Mongolia grassland, more common. Through thousands of years of continuous improvement and change, has been handed down to the present. Let us be able to appreciate the wisdom of the ancient people. So why is Mongolia bag so long to exist, and what is his unique charm?
The Mongolia bag is a very unique national building. Its shape is to resist the dust weather and windy weather on the grassland. The Mongolia bag can easily solve these problems. Mongolia does not exist water chestnut, showing a streamlined shape, the top of the bag is arched, with very large capacity. When there is a strong wind, it can accept a great reaction force. The Mongolia bag is very solid.
In addition to the sand and wind, Mongolia can withstand the big bag prairie rain, mainly because of a Mongolia package form, rainy day Mongolia wooden package will be a bit steep, then felt top cover, rain and snow is difficult to invade into the top of the bag or round shape, only from the top of the rain go with the flow above the mat. However, the rainy days of Mongolia bag pressure can be improved, while the Mongolia bag will stand to accept the pressure of several kilograms.
The Mongolia area is very cold, but the Mongols have always lived in Mongolia, and they don’t feel cold. Mongolia is mainly because the bag there is a fire, and yurts outside thickened, there will be a layer of felt, the wind insulation comparison in Mongolia is excellent, the bag bag plate warm Kang, Mongolia is warm in winter and cool in summer, this is mainly because it is white, can be reflective, you can also open window.
It is generally believed that the west side of Mongolia is noble, while the east side is humble. In the process of building the Mongolia package, from west to East “Hana Hana” end. The fire chaplet is the core object of Mongolia within the package, represents the inheritance of the family, “Ma Maxianshan, leading positive alignment of the fire chaplet”, “spoon, shovel, and other supplies can not buckle on the colander, need to handle to the fire chaplet. If you hang up, also need to put it on fire “,” support for pillow embroidery top toward the incense, etc..
In the Mongolian wedding, the woman must dowry items are felt and Kamen Rider poker, but can not give the fire chaplet, because felt mean that women need to take riders daily labor, means that women need to take the tongs for food production labor. Similar to fire sticks, the Mongolia gate represents the lineage of the family. As an important dividing line between house and house, family and society, door has also been endowed with important cultural connotations. For example, “Mongolian Mongolia paid special attention to the package and lintel threshold. The threshold represents a family, so it is particularly taboo to step on the threshold. The lintel represents the offspring, so when the sacrificial fire to kill a sheep when offering sprinkle lintel, keep the sheep tail hanging on the lintel, pray for a son”.
Here, the gate threshold, all represent the heritage of the family and other family. In the traditional family life, although the division of labor between men and women is clear, they often emphasize the dominant position of men. For example, when he got married, in the Mongolian felt covered new Mongolia package before the West with the sun felt mizzah shape, with the shape of the moon mizzah east. The groom to sit in the sun pattern, while the bride sitting on the moon pattern, and then hold a sheep bone stick together, kowtow toward the sun. And the groom should grasp the big head of the sheep bone, and the bride should grasp the small head. In short, in the traditional gender order Mongolia package, complementary cooperation relations between the sexes in the core position, certain levels of hierarchy but also.
Though great changes have taken place in the Mongolian living way, take a brick, building and other new forms, but some of the traditional gender culture is also extended to the existing buildings and daily life, and the new change, existence and continuation. It is worth noting that we on the traditional architecture of gender culture research is not only to understand the past practice of people’s life, but also to inspire and enhance the cultural consciousness, cultural people’s ability to reflect, to understand the current practice of people’s life more deeply.
In short, by discussing the gender characteristics of the traditional Mongolia package, we can not only see the rich cultural connotation of housing construction, but also see the particularity and complexity of different ethnic housing construction. The traditional package to Mongolia, it is a kind of gender characteristics in things symmetrical structure as the core, including a complex system structure, North and South; in its gender order is a gender complementary partnership as the core, including complex system hierarchy, and the relationship between gender and culture it; in the process of forming, nomadic production activities play a fundamental role, including certain political, religious and other factors;
Its gender culture is also a constantly changing and constructive system, which has undergone a historical change from female centered to male centered. The research not only enrich the Mongolian traditional architectural culture, also has certain instructive significance to other traditional architectural culture research, and previous studies compared with simple architecture, technology, technology, customs in this special gender perspective is more vivid.
Mongolian herdsmen living on the grassland will also be relatively traditional in their lives. The characteristic of the nation makes it necessary for us to follow the customs of many Mongolian people after entering Mongolia. So what should we pay attention to? Mongolia bag in a taboo, you know? How about going to the Mongolia bag in the grassland to pay attention to these things?.
When herdsmen invite friends to enter the Mongolia package, remember not to step on the herdsmen’s Mongolia package threshold. Because of the Mongolian People’s fear of fire, so don’t from across the brazier. When eating, do not sharpen the sharp edge of the knife towards the master of Mongolia.
Sitting position is also very exquisite, the man must remember to sit on the left side of the Mongolia bag, women usually sit on the right side of the Mongolia bag, taboo mix and sit. At the same time, sleep should also pay attention to, guests generally sleep on the west side of the package in Mongolia, Mongolia bag on the east side of the general will leave to the hostess sleep. Of course, it would be better if there were other Mongolia bags.
If there is a fire or hung with red cloth and mark the door, said the patients or mothers, friends do not try to enter. Ride, ride to the herdsmen home, to be close to the Mongolia Qingqi slow packet, so as not to disturb the herd, to walk to the horses to be near, into the bag before the whip on the outside, if brought into the Mongolia package, is seen as a sign of disrespect to the host.
When the guests to tea or wine, you must bow their hands. Disable the chopsticks hitting the table and bowls, chopsticks beat talent that only beg. The host invites the guests to have some dairy or tea, usually under too much restraint. Do not eat, do not drink, there are impolite Festival, if you can not repeatedly because of their own reasons, you can also eat less, hint Mongolia package owner, you have eaten.
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